Carus Remediation Technologies (CRT) is a global leader for environmental remediation and offers a wide range of products to solve your environmental concerns. CRT has been active in the remediation industry for more than a decade, and our products have been successfully applied at thousands of sites throughout the world. Our company is committed to providing you with proven, high quality products and our technical team will help guide you towards successful remediation of contaminated sites. Carus offers solutions for ISCO, bioremediation, and treatment of various contaminants of concern.
In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO)
The Carus name is synonymous with permanganate. Carus was one of the early leaders in the development of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using permanganate and was instrumental in developing the remediation market overall. Permanganate is typically the “go-to” product for chlorinated solvent treatment, but can also be used to treat other contaminants of concern such as: 1,4-dioxane, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, and energetics. Carus manufactures remediation-grade RemOx® S ISCO reagent (potassium permanganate) and RemOx® L ISCO reagent (40% sodium permanganate), our two pioneer products, as well as dilute permanganate product offerings.
Our diluted bulk deliveries of RemOx S and RemOx L are supplied directly to remediation sites, eliminating the need for large volumes of dilution water or equipment on site. CRT has partnered with several regional chemical manufacturers to provide local dilution and delivery of different concentrations of our remediation grade permanganates to our customers. We can deliver RemOx® S-D ISCO reagent as a 1%, 2%, or 3% potassium permanganate solution and provide RemOx® L-D ISCO reagent as a 5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% sodium permanganate solution.
Permanganate does not require activation and is applicable over a wide pH range. Research has shown that permanganate does not sterilize the microbial community in the treatment area. While permanganate is present, the microbes may be depressed. However, once the permanganate has been consumed, the microbial populations have been shown to flourish due to the release of organic carbons from the soil matrix. Permanganate is frequently used in treatment-train approaches with a focused permanganate injection scheme in the source area followed by injection of CAP 18® or CAP 18 ME® anaerobic bioremediation products downgradient for treatment of the dissolved plume.
Vadose zone treatment can be challenging for ISCO. Most of the commonly used oxidants for in situ treatment require groundwater advection and diffusion to distribute the oxidant through the subsurface. In situ blending is commonly used to help address this issue.
In addition to chemical oxidation with permanganate as a treatment technology, Carus offers bioremediation products that are designed to stimulate the naturally occurring bacteria in the soil. These products can be used alone or as part of a treatment-train approach for down-gradient plume treatment and polishing.
Oxygen BioChem (OBC) supports anaerobic oxidation conditions and delivers oxygen for long-term biological oxidation under anaerobic conditions. Sulfate BioChem(SBC) has advantages by providing soluble sulfates and compounds that help develop and promote the necessary redox conditions to sustain oxidation by sulfate reductions. IXPER® 70 C and IXPER 75C Calcium Peroxides are primarily used to stimulate the natural degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons including BTEX. IXPER is a polishing step and can be injected in a grid pattern or broadcasted at the bottom of an excavation or in trench applications.
Carus Remediation Technologies offers complimentary bioremediation products that can meet the substrate requirements for a variety of bioremediation site design strategies. Customers can now choose between our long-lasting oil-derived CAP 18® and CAP 18 ME® anaerobic bioremediation products that provide a sustained source of hydrogen for 3+ years or, if site goals require a water soluble substrate with the option of combining zero valent iron for chemical reduction, ABC-Olé and ABC+ (Anaerobic BioChem+) (Europe only).
CAP 18® and CAP 18 ME® anaerobic bioremediation products provide a long-term hydrogen source and quick hydrogen release for the reductive dechlorination of a variety of contaminants including chlorinated solvents, nitrates, sulfates, perchlorate, and explosives. On a per-pound basis, CAP 18 and CAP 18 ME contribute significantly more hydrogen than soluble products.
Since CAP 18 and CAP 18 ME are unemulsified oil products, the oil has the ability to stay in place where it is injected. This is an excellent option for barrier applications, especially at more challenging sites with high seepage velocity. For those sites that have a lower seepage velocity, the longevity of CAP 18 and CAP 18 ME coupled with the ability of the fatty acids to migrate 60 feet downgradient allows design flexibility. Undesirable and unproductive methane production can also be an issue when using various bioamendments. The C18 fatty acids in CAP 18 and CAP 18 ME are known to inhibit the aceticlastic methanogenesis pathway for methane production with anaerobic bioremediation.
Chlorinated solvent contamination is an extensive problem throughout the world due to their wide use during the 20th century in various types of industries: metal processing plants, dry cleaners, and chemical and pharma plants. Common solvents include tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), used extensively in the dry cleaning industry, and 1,1,1 – trichloroethane (TCA) and methylene chloride used as industrial degreasers. Chlorinated solvents when released into the subsurface will tend to sink through the saturated zone as they are denser than water. As a result small droplets (ganglia) get trapped in the soil pore-space as a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), which in turn can act as a long-term source of dissolved phase contamination.
Petroleum hydrocarbons (i.e., TPHs, DRO GRO) are the most common contaminants requiring remediation due to their widespread occurrence and the risks they pose to human health and controlled waters.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely occurring in natural media such as soil, sediment, water, air and plants as a result of both natural and anthropogenic processes.
The use of multiple technologies (combined or in treatment trains) is often a practical means to address difficult remediation sites. Contaminant releases commonly result in a source zone (free-phase, residual, and/or diffusion) and dissolved phase plume (groundwater or soil vapor). Achieving site closure can be challenging, time-consuming, and costly. The optimal approach to clean-up can require sequential or concurrent remedies to achieve the most cost-effective approach throughout the entire life cycle of cleanup at a project site.
Carus has been an active participant in the remediation industry for over two decades and is dedicated to the support and growth of ISCO, bioremediation, and other emerging technologies. Our products have successfully been implemented at various sites both as stand alone solutions and along with other technologies (combined remedies or treatment train approaches) to achieve site closure.
Remediation Selection Chart
|Chlorinated Ethenes (PCE,TCE, DCE, VC)||Other Chlorinated Solvents||TPHs / BTEX / PAHs / MTBE||Reactive barriers||High velocity aquifers||Low permability aquifers||Free phase LNAPL DNAPL|
|Chemical treatments ISCO ISCR||RemOx® L RemOx® S|
|Biological treatments bioremediation||ABC- Olé|