Municipal Water Treatment
Frequent news articles highlight concerns about safe drinking water around the world. Contaminants such as lead, copper, arsenic, cyanotoxins, and trace organics are detected by increasingly sensitive analyses. Taste, odor, and appearance issues, while less hazardous, are also regarded as unacceptable. The aging water delivery system infrastructure can create and/or contribute to water quality issues. With over 60 years of experience serving more than 5,000 utilities around the world, Carus offers proven products to protect and improve the quality of your water supply.
Taste and Odor
In surface water supplies, algae, natural organic material, or man-made impurities may impart unpleasant tastes and odors (off-flavors) to the water. When detected, the customer may question the water quality. As an important first step, water treatment facilities often use a combination of treatments to solve taste and odor problems, including the use of permanganate oxidation.
Iron and Manganese Oxidation
Iron and manganese are controlled by water treatment systems to EPA recommended levels. These metals can contribute to scale formation and corrosion in distribution lines, leading to flow reduction. Staining of fixtures and clothes can occur, with taste complaints. While manganese at trace levels is considered an essential micronutrient, higher levels of manganese have been associated with negative health effects. Permanganate’s strong yet safe oxidizing power can remove these metals.
In most cases, water must be disinfected to inactivate or kill microbial pathogens. However, disinfectants can react with naturally occurring materials in the water to form byproducts including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), chlorite, chlorate, and bromate. Some disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are health concerns. Permanganate can oxidize DPB precursors, reducing hazardous byproduct formation when disinfectants are applied. The use of permanganate will also provide iron and manganese oxidation, taste and odor control, and cyanotoxin reduction. Permanganate oxidation alone has been shown to reduce byproduct formation by as much as 40%.
Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element occurring in groundwater associated with specific types of bedrock found in some regions of the US and around the world. Radium and its decomposition product radon are known carcinogens. Radium is regulated to low levels in drinking water by the US EPA. For this hazard, Carus scientists take advantage of the adsorptive properties of the permanganate reaction product manganese dioxide.
Natural organic material from decaying vegetation and inorganic minerals can discolor raw source water. Compounds, such as tannins and humic acids, impart a tea-like color. Applied to the raw water, permanganate is an effective treatment for removing this unwanted color.
Carus has a complete line of over 50 uniquely formulated phosphate blends designed to effectively control corrosion in a wide range of water quality. These products help clean, maintain, and extend the life of system infrastructure including mains, service lines, valves, meters and household plumbing. Our corrosion programs are designed to provide a microscopic film formation on metal surfaces eliminating red water and ensuring compliance with EPA Lead and Copper regulations. In addition, the Carus corrosion programs can lower chlorine demand, lower pH requirements, improve C factors (flow) and yield more effective flushing programs.
The use of Carus polyphosphate blends eliminates red/brown water, cleans existing tuberculation, improves C- Factors (flow) and minimizes scale formation in distribution systems. Additional benefits include improved disinfection (lower chlorine demand), effective corrosion control at lower pH levels and improved flushing programs.
Lead and Copper
Carus’ phosphate program is the preferred choice for lead and copper concerns. The complete line includes over 75 poly-orthophosphate, zinc orthophosphate and orthophosphate blends to effectively reduce corrosion in potable and non-potable systems and mitigate the release of lead and copper.
The use of Carus polyphosphate blends eliminates scale formation, cloudy water and improves C- Factors (flow) in the distribution system. Additional benefits include improved disinfection (lower chlorine demand), effective corrosion control at lower pH levels and improved flushing programs.
The use of Carus polyphosphates blends eliminates red/brown water, cleans existing tuberculation, improves C- Factors (flow) and minimizes scale for in distribution system. Additional benefits include improved disinfection (lower chlorine demand), effective corrosion control at lower pH levels and improved flushing programs.