Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element occurring in groundwater associated with specific types of bedrock found in some regions of the US and around the world.  Radium and its decomposition product radon are known carcinogens. Radium is regulated to low levels in drinking water by the US EPA. For this hazard, Carus scientists take advantage of the adsorptive properties of the permanganate reaction product manganese dioxide. 

Hydrous manganese oxide (HMO), a high surface area floc, has a unique adsorptive affinity for capturing radium 226 and 228 ions in water. Freshly precipitated HMO is prepared on site by combining Carus permanganates with a Carus manganese sulfate, producing a well-characterized slurry. When injected into a groundwater source, HMO quickly adsorbs the radium ions allowing removal by filtration. Further details of radium removal by HMO can be found in the technical brief below or Contact Us.